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Telomeres were first recognized in the late 1930s as important structures on chromosome ends. In the 1970s the sequence of these structures was identified in the ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena by Elizabeth Blackburn. In the 1980s telomerase was discovered as an enzyme that elongates telomeres and compensates for natural telomere shortening. Carol Greider, Director of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University, discusses the journey from these curiosity driven discoveries to the appreciation of the role of telomeres in human disease. Recorded on 03/05/2014.

In his research in organic and materials chemistry, Professor Richard B. Kaner focuses on the design of new high-temperature materials and their synthesis by new chemical methods. He discovered a spectacular new method to make high-temperature ceramics in a few seconds, a process that previously took days or even weeks. His research group has produced more than 100 materials using this method, and he has obtained three patents for the process, with two more pending. He is the recipient of numerous awards, including John Simon Guggenheim, Alfred P. Sloan, and David and Lucile Packard fellowships, as well as premier awards from the American Chemical Society, a National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator Award, and UCLA's Distinguished Teaching Award, among many others.

Dr. Susan Little of UC San Diego School of Medicine presents her research that tracks HIV infection by rapidly obtaining genetic information from those engaged in HIV healthcare. A discussion follows on privacy protections, the risks associated with the use of these data and their potential to significantly limit HIV transmission in communities. Dr. Little is presented by the Center for Ethics in Science and Technology in San Diego.

This CARTA symposium addresses the question of how human language came to have the kind of structure it has today, focusing on three sources of evidence. One source, which is discussed in these three talks, concerns neuroscientific investigations of functional specialization for language in the human brain and its dependence on the linguistic input the language learner gets during cognitive development. Evelina Fedorenko (Massachusetts General Hospital) begins with an examination of Specialization for Language in the Human Brain, followed by Rachel Mayberry (UC San Diego) on How the Environment Shapes Language in the Brain, and Edward Chang (UC San Francisco) on Neuroscience of Speech Perception and Speech Production. Recorded on 2/20/2015.
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