Cutaways (shots of the audience) are a good way to enhance the look of a program, as well as allow it to be edited without calling undue attention to such edits. A variety of still shots of audience members, individually and in groups, can be shot before the lecture starts (if people are looking in the right direction and not talking) or during the Q & A. Avoid shooting people who are talking, looking at the camera, looking bored or uninterested, or otherwise looking embarrassing to the camera. Shoot each cutaway for at least 25 seconds of good usable video, and get at least one cutaway for each ten minutes of program. The use of pans, zooms and rack focusing should only be used after the "still" shots have been recorded.